Italy: The Italian transition from an emigration to immigration country
Anno: 2006 – 2009
Responsabile: Corrado Bonifazi
For almost a century, Italy was one of the leading European emigration countries and only in the second half of the 1970s did the country begin to receive immigration flows of a certain amount from the Third World and, later, from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). For this reason we have dedicated Chapter 2 to a brief description of the main stages of migration history before the start of foreign immigration. In Chapter 3, we look at migration flows in terms of arrivals and departures from 1955 onward and, particularly, at flows of foreign immigrants in more recent years. Population registers data are used, as well as census data according to the reason of immigration. Additionally, the characteristics of irregular flows are analysed with the data of regularisations. Chapter 4 analyzes data on foreign population stocks, looking at both the regular and irregular components and evaluates four aspects: reason for stay, area of origin, area of settlement and naturalisation trends. We then move on in Chapter 5 to examine migration policy, assessing the development of regulation, entry policies and conditions of stay, integration policies and the determinants of such policies. In Chapter 6 we turn to describing some aspects of the impact of migration on Italian demographics, the economy and society at large. Our report closes in Chapter 7 with an overall evaluation of Italy’s transformation from an emigration to an immigration country.